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楼主:京东指南 时间:2018年02月25日 17:14:16 点击:0 回复:0
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The military government published AI-5, Institutional Act No.5, which suspended habeas corpus, allowing houses to be searched without warrant, and anyone to be jailed without reason being given. 军事政府公布了AI-5,制度行动5号,暂停人身保护令, 无正当理由允许房屋搜索,任何人都可以无理由被监禁。Torture became commonplace, thousands simply disappeared. 折磨成了家常便饭,数以千计的人简简单单就完全消失了。The military didnt arrest left wing musicians, but instead, targeted the leaders of Tropicalia, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil.军方没有逮捕左翼的音乐家们,但相反,针对领导人哥塔诺·维罗索和吉尔伯托·吉尔。What scared, what bothered the military, was basically behaviours. You know. 让军队感到害怕,困扰的基本上是各种行动。你知道的。The way, I mean, we were sort of dressing and manifesting, and dealing ideas, you know, trading ideas. 我的意思是,我们需要打扮并明,交换想法,你知道, 交换想法。Thats sort of things. The behaviourists revolution element.这一类的东西。行为学家革命的元素。On December 27th, 1968, Gil and Veloso were detained in Sao Paolo and driven to Rio, where they were held without charge.1968年12月27日, 吉尔和维罗索被拘留在圣保罗和里约热内卢,在那里,他们没有指控的被关押着。注:听力文本来源于普特201303/230241Mining asteroids小行星采矿Going platinum小行星采矿——淘铂去Mining metals from asteroids seems a bonkers idea. But could it work?小行星采矿这想法听似疯狂,但行得通吗?CAN reality trump art? That was the question hovering over the launch on April 24th, at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, of a plan by a firm called Planetary Resources to mine metals from asteroids and bring them back to Earth.4月24日,行星资源公司(Planetary Resources)在西雅图的航天物馆(Museum of Flight)启动了一项计划——在小行星上采矿并将矿物带回地球。对这项计划,人们一直都在疑惑:现实能否战胜艺术? It sounds like the plot of a film by James Cameron—and, appropriately, Mr Cameron is indeed one of the company’s backers. The team behind the firm, however, claim they are not joking. The company’s founders are Peter Diamandis, instigator of the X Prize, awarded in 2004 to Paul Allen and Burt Rutan for the first private space flight, and Eric Anderson, another of whose companies, Space Adventures, has aly shot seven tourists into orbit. Larry Page and Eric Schmidt, respectively the chief executive and the chairman of Google, are also involved. So, too, is Charles Symonyi, the engineer who oversaw the creation of Microsoft’s Office software (and who has been into space twice courtesy of Mr Anderson’s firm). With a cast-list like that, it is at least polite to take them seriously.这听着就像詹姆斯?卡梅隆的电影中的情节——恰好,詹姆斯?卡梅隆实际上就是这家公司的赞助人之一。但是公司背后的团队宣称小行星采矿这事可不是在开玩笑。行星资源公司的创始人是X奖(2004年Paul Alle和Burt Rutan因首次实现私人太空飞行而获颁此奖)发起者Peter Diamandis和拥有太空探险公司(Space Adventures)(已将七位游客送上太空)的Eric Anderson。GOOGLE的总经理Larry Page和董事长 Eric Schmidt也参与其中,曾负责监督开发微软办公软件的工程师Charles Symonyi同样是其中一分子(通过Eric Anderson的公司,他也上过太空两次)。阵容如此强大,出于礼貌至少也该重视这个想法。As pies in the sky go, some asteroids do look pretty tasty. A lot are unconsolidated piles of rubble left over from the beginning of the solar system. Many, though, are pieces of small planets that bashed into each other over the past few billion years. These, in particular, will be high on Planetary Resources’ shopping list because the planet-forming processes of mineral-melting and subsequent stratification into core, mantle and crust will have sorted their contents in ways that can concentrate valuable materials into exploitable ores. On Earth, for example, platinum and its allied elements, though rare at the surface, are reckoned more common in the planet’s metal-rich core. The same was probably true of the planets shattered to make asteroids. Indeed, the discovery of a layer of iridium-rich rock (iridium being one of platinum’s relatives) was the first sign geologists found of the asteroid impact that is believed to have killed the dinosaurs.这想法虽不切实际,但有些小行星看来确实很诱人。它们许多是由太阳系诞生时遗留下来的碎石堆成的,结构松散;但仍有很多是过去几十亿年里小行星相互碰撞产生的碎片。特别是后者将被行星资源公司优先列在其采矿清单上。因为在行星诞生时,矿物熔化之后会层化为地核、地幔、地壳;这个过程将使其中物质分门别类,令有价值的矿物浓缩成可供开采的矿石。例如在地球上,铂和铂系元素在地表上虽然罕见,但人们认为在富含金属的地核里却是较为常见的。对于那些相互碰撞后其碎片形成小行星的行星而言,情况可能同样如此。实际上,地质学家们提出小行星曾撞击地球的第一个据就是发现了富含铱的岩层(铱是铂的同族元素之一)。人们认为恐龙就是因小行星撞击地球而灭绝的。Most asteroids dwell between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But enough of them, known as near-Earth asteroids, or NEAs, come within interplanetary spitting distance of humanity for it to be worth investigating them as sources of minerals—if, of course, that can be done economically.大部分的小行星都位于火星和木星的轨道之间。但近地小行星(即NEAS)也不少,它们距离地球很近,值得勘探。当然,费用要划得来才行。First catch your hare勿谋之过早The first thing is to locate a likely prospect. At the moment, about 9,000 NEAs are known, most of them courtesy of ground-based programmes looking for bodies that might one day hit Earth. That catalogue is a good start, but Planetary Resources plans to go further. In 2014 it intends to launch, at a cost of a few million dollars, a set of small space telescopes whose purpose will be to seek out asteroids which are easy to get to and whose orbits return them to the vicinity of Earth often enough for the accumulated spoils of a mining operation to be downloaded at frequent intervals.首先,要找到一个可能有矿藏的小行星。目前已探明的近地小行星约有9000颗,其中大部分是地面计划在寻找可能撞击地球的天体时探测到的。从这个范围开始寻找是很好,但行星资源公司却有更远大的计划。该公司打算在2014年耗资数百万美元发射一组小型太空望远镜,用于寻找容易到达的、能经常回到地球附近的小行星,以便常将所采矿物送回地球。That bit should not be too difficult. But the next phase will be tougher. In just over a decade, when a set of suitable targets has been identified, the firm plans to send a second wave of spacecraft out to take a closer look at what has been found. This is a significantly bigger challenge than getting a few telescopes into orbit. It is still, though, conceivable using existing technology. It is after this that the handwaving really starts.这一步应该不会太难,但下一步就难度更大了。当该公司发现了一组适合采矿的小行星时,便计划要在短短十年多一点的时间内发送第二批宇宙飞船仔细研究一下这些小行星。这个挑战可比向太空中发射几个望远镜要艰巨得多。不过,利用现有的技术仍是可以实现的。在这之后,纸上谈兵才真正开始。Broadly, there are two ways to get the goodies back to Earth. The first is to attempt to mine a large NEA in its existing orbit, dropping off a payload every time it passes by. That is the reason for the search for asteroids with appropriate orbits. This approach will, however, require intelligent robots which can work by themselves for years, digging and processing the desirable material. The other way of doing things is for the company to retrieve smaller asteroids, put them into orbit around Earth or the moon, and then dissect them at its leisure. But that limits the value of the haul and risks a catastrophic impact if something goes wrong while the asteroid is being manoeuvred.要将所采矿物运回地球大致有两种方法。其一是在不改变其轨道的情况下于一颗较大的小行星上采矿,在这颗小行星每次接近地球时卸下所采矿物。这就是为何要寻找轨道合适的小行星的原因。不过,此法需要能独立工作数年的智能机器人来开采并加工有价值的矿物。其二是行星资源公司改变较小的小行星的运行轨道,将其安置在环绕地球或月球的轨道上,再在有空时仔细研究之。但那将减少每次采矿的量,且要承担移动小行星时出现问题而带来灾难性后果的风险。Either way, the expense involved promises to be out of this world. A recent feasibility study for the Keck Institute for Space Studies reckoned that the retrieval of a single 500-tonne asteroid to the moon would cost more than .5 billion. Earlier research suggested that, to have any chance of success, an asteroid-mining venture would need to be capitalised to the tune of 0 billion. Moreover, a host of new technologies will be required, including more-powerful solar panels, electric-ion engines, extraterrestrial mining equipment and robotic refineries.不论哪种方法,所需费用都一定是天价。最近,克柯太空研究所(Keck Institute for Space Studies)进行的一项可行性分析认为,将一颗重量为500公吨的小行星移到月球附近所耗资金将超过二十五亿美元。较早前的研究指出,必须投资一千亿美元才有可能实现小行星采矿。而且,还需要大量新技术,包括功率更大的太阳能电池板、电子离子引擎、太空采矿设备和自动冶炼厂。All of which can, no doubt, be done if enough money and ingenuity are applied to the project. But the real doubt over this sort of enterprise is not the supply, but the demand. Platinum, iridium and the rest are expensive precisely because they are rare. Make them common, by digging them out of the heart of a shattered planet, and they will become cheap. The most important members of the team, then, may not be the entrepreneurs and venture capitalists who put up the drive and the money, nor the engineers who build the hardware that makes it all possible, but the economists who try to work out the effect on the price of platinum when a mountain of the stuff arrives from outer space.当然,若为这个项目投入足够的资金和人才,以上种种都能实现。但对于这种工程浩大的项目,人们真正质疑的并非是否有人能提供这种务,而是有没有这种需求。正因为稀有,铂、铱等矿物才价格不菲。若这些矿物能在一个由碎片构成的行星的地核中被开采到,它们就成了普通金属,价格也会变得便宜。所以,这个团队里最重要的成员可能不是推动这项事业并参与投资的企业家和风险投资人,也不是设计实现这一目的的硬件工程师;而是当大量的铂从天外而来时,那些试图算出其对铂价冲击的经济学家。201205/183343When Marmosets Think About Love小猴子表达如何爱狨猴(Marmoset),又称指猴,是生活在在南美洲亚马逊河流域的森林中的一种世界上最小的猴子。这种猴长大后身高仅10—12厘米,重80—100克。新生猴只有蚕豆般大小,重13克。这种猴子喜欢捉虱子吃,且性格温和,因此饲养它们便成了当地印第安人的嗜好。Marmosets are small primates. Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears. Primatologists have often wondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drive was more like an on/off switch.绒猴是很小的灵长类。试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a study conducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so. Male marmosets having their brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did! But guess what else happened? Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, information integration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。但你猜还会发生什么情况?很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brain than a simple “have sex now” program. The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the males are evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring. Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 /201209/199246In addition he was conscious of having to compete with Beethovens Ninth Symphony, and was so nervous that he failed to appear at the final examination and very nearly lost his diploma.此外他意识到必须和贝多芬的第九交响曲竞争,他非常紧张,所以未能参加期末考试并且几乎丢了自己的文凭。But the music was performed in his absence at the prize-giving ceremony and was a full-scale disaster.但是,颁奖典礼在他的缺席中所演奏的音乐简直就是一场灾难。It drew widesp criticism both at the conservatoire and in the press,.这引起了音乐学院及媒体的广泛批评,。The conservatoire composer, Mr.Tchaikovsky, is utterly feeble.音乐学校的作曲家,柴可夫斯基,完全非常软弱。It is true that his composition was written under the most unfavorable circumstances, but if he had any gift at all then at least somewhere or other it would have broken through.确实,他的创作条件最为最不利,但是如果他有任何先决条件,那么至少在某个地方会有突破。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201610

Science and Technology Solar power The third way科技 太阳能 利用太阳能发电的第三种方法A new method of making electricity from sunlight has just been tested一种新的利用太阳能发电的方法刚刚得到测试AT THE moment, there are two reliable ways to make electricity from sunlight.目前,利用阳光发电的可靠方法有两种。You can use a panel of solar cells to create the current directly, by liberating electrons from a semiconducting material such as silicon.你可以使用一块太阳能电池板从硅等半导体材料中释放电子来直接制造电流。Or you can concentrate the suns rays using mirrors, boil water with them, and employ the steam to drive a generator.也可以用镜子集中太阳光线,利用它们烧开水,利用蒸汽驱动发电机。Both work. But both are expensive.这两种方式都能进行也都很昂贵。Gang Chen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Zhifeng Ren of Boston College therefore propose, in a paper in Nature Materials, an alternative.为此,麻省理工学院的陈刚和波士顿大学的任志峰在《自然-材料》杂志上刊登的一篇论文中提出了另一种方式。They suggest that a phenomenon called the thermoelectric effect might be used instead—and they have built a prototype to show that the idea is practical.他们提出可以利用一种名为热电效应的现象——而且还建立了一个模型来明这个想法的可行性。Thermoelectric devices are not new.热电器件并不是什么新鲜事。They are used, for example, to capture waste heat from car engines.比如它们被用来捕捉从汽车引擎排出的废热。They work because certain materials, such as bismuth telluride, generate an electrical potential difference within themselves if one part is hotter than another.它们之所以能起作用是因为某些材料,比如碲化铋,如果其中一部分比另一部分热,内部就会产生电位差。That can be used to drive a current through an external circuit.通过外部电路就可以利用这一点来导通电流。The reason thermoelectric materials have not, in the past, been applied successfully to the question of solar power is that to get a worthwhile current you have to have a significant temperature difference. (200oC is considered a good starting point.)为什么在过去热电材料没能成功地应用到太阳能上呢,这是因为如果要获得有价值的电流必须有巨大的温度差。(200摄氏度被视为合适的起点。)In a car engine, that is easy.汽车引擎里很容易达到这个温度差。For sunlight, however, it means concentrating the heat in some way. And if you are going to the trouble of building mirrors to do that, you might as well go down the steam-generation route, which is a much more efficient way of producing electricity.但是对于阳光来说,这意味着通过某种方式集中热量,而如果你费尽力气用一堆镜子达到这个温度差,你很可能走回蒸汽发动的老套路上了,那是一种效率更高的发电方式。If the heat concentration could be done without all the paraphernalia of mirrors, though, thermoelectricitys inefficiency would be offset by the cheapness of the kit.倘若能集中热量而不需要使用镜子的复杂步骤,虽然热电效率不高,但设备的廉价却可以弥补这点。And that is the direction in which Dr Chen and Dr Ren hope they are heading.而陈士和任士希望他们可以朝这个方向努力。In their view, three things are needed to create a workable solar-thermoelectric device.他们认为创造一种可行的太阳能热电设备需要具备三个条件。The first is to make sure that most of the sunlight which falls on it is absorbed, rather than being reflected.第一是确保大多数射入该设备的阳光被吸收而不是被反射回去了。The second is to choose a thermoelectric material which conducts heat badly (so that different parts remain at different temperatures) but electricity well.第二是选择的热电材料的导热性差(这样不同部分就能保持不同的温度)但是导电性良好。The third is to be certain that the temperature gradient which that badly conducting material creates is not frittered away by poor design.第三是确保那种导热性差的材料产生的温度变化率不因为设计缺陷而白白浪费。The two researchers overcame these challenges through clever engineering.两位研究者经由巧妙的工程技术克了上述挑战。The first they dealt with by coating the top of the device with oxides of hafnium, molybdenum and titanium, in layers about 100 nanometres thick.他们在设备顶上盖上了大概100纳米厚的二氧化铪、氧化钼和氧化钛的混合物。These layers acted like the anti-reflective coatings on spectacle lenses and caused almost all the sunlight falling on the device to be absorbed.它们的作用类似玻璃眼镜上面防反射的覆盖层,使所有落到设备上的阳光都被吸收。这样第一个问题就解决了。The second desideratum, of low thermal and high electrical conductivity, was achieved by dividing the bismuth telluride into pellets a few nanometres across.低导热性和高导电性则通过把碲化铋分成几纳米的粒状物来实现。That does not affect their electrical conductivity, but nanoscale particles like this are known to scatter and obstruct the passage of heat through imperfectly understood quantum-mechanical processes.它们的导电性不会因此受到影响,但是人们知道像这样的纳米级颗粒会分散开来并通过人们还尚未完全理解的量子力学过程阻碍热量通道。The third objective, efficient design, involved sandwiching the nanostructured bismuth telluride between two copper plates and then enclosing the upper plate (the one coated with the light-absorbing oxides) and the bismuth telluride in a vacuum.第三个目标是高效的设计,它涉及到把纳米级的碲化铋夹在两片铜薄片之间然后把位于上方的薄片(这个薄片被覆盖上了吸收光线的氧化物)和碲化铋封入一个真空内。The copper plates conducted heat rapidly to and from the bismuth telluride, thus maintaining the temperature difference.铜片可以把热量迅速地传递到碲化铋上或从碲化铋上导出,这样就能保持气温差。The vacuum stopped the apparatus losing heat by convection.容器防止该设备通过对流失去热量。The upshot was a device that converts 4.6% of incident sunlight into electricity.结果就是这样一个可以把射入阳光的4.6%转化为电能的设备。That is not great compared with the 20% and more achieved by a silicon-based solar cell, the 40% managed by a solar-thermal turbine, or even the 18-20% of one of the new generation of cheap and cheerful thin-film solar cells.以硅晶为基础的太阳能电池的转化率为20%甚至以上,太阳能热力涡轮的为40%,就连一种新一代价廉物美的薄膜太阳能电池的转化率也能达到18%-20%,与它们相比,4.6%并不可观。But it is enough, Dr Chen reckons, for the process to be worth considering for mass production.但是陈士认为这已经足够了,值得考虑对该设备进行大规模生产。He sees it, in particular, as something that could be built into the solar water-heaters that adorn the roofs of an increasing number of houses.他特别指出该设备可以安装到越来越多的房屋顶上装有的太阳能热水器上去。If such heaters were covered with thermoelectric generators the suns rays could be put to sequential use.如果这样的热水器配上热电发动机,那么太阳光就可以被连续使用。First, electric power would be extracted from them.首先,从它们身上可以获取电能。Then, the exhaust heat from the bottom plate of the thermoelectric device would be used in the traditional way to warm water up.其次,从热电设备中位于底部的薄片中出来的排气可以用于传统方式来加热水。Two-for-one has always been an attractive proposition for the consumer.对消费者来说,二合一总是很有吸引力的建议。This kind of combined heat and power might enable more people to declare independence from the grid.这种结合热力和电力的方式可以让更多人摆脱输电网。 /201212/214277

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